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Introduction

Pratima Bajpai. Algal Ecology. Jan Stevenson. Sediment Quality Assessment. Graeme Batley.

9. Wastewater use case studies

Methods in Stream Ecology. Richard Hauer. Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions.

Combating Antibiotic Resistance: Environment & Sanitation

Darlene Southworth. Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Insects. Jon F. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Sally E. Stephen Weiner. Eric Lichtfouse. Stephen A. Soil Microbiology and Sustainable Crop Production. Emma L. Bacterial Biogeochemistry. Tom Fenchel. Terrestrial Photosynthesis in a Changing Environment. Jaume Flexas. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Petroleum Products.

Treated Wastewater in Agriculture: Use andIimpacts on the Soil Environment and Crops

James G. Harvey Belkin.

Soil Emission of Nitrous Oxide and its Mitigation. David Ussiri. Plant Physiological Ecology. Hans Lambers. Plant Breeding for Water-Limited Environments. Abraham Blum. The Rhizosphere. Zoe G.

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Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management. Ecological Risk Assessment of Contaminants in Soil. Insect-Plant Interactions Elizabeth A.


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Insects of Stored Products. David Rees. Viktor Schauberger. The Science of Algal Fuels. Richard Gordon. Some important technological developments that have brought about the renewed interest in wastewater reclamation include: the availability of reliable microfiltration, ultra filtration, and reverse osmosis membranes; the use of ozone coupled with biological filtration, low, medium, and high energy UV disinfection; high energy UV advanced oxidation.

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These treatment processes, can now be used to remove acute toxicity e. Further, because multiple treatment processes are now available for any given constituent, the multiple barrier concept, which involves the use of redundant treatment processes or other activities, in parallel or series, is applied to reduce the risk from a given constituent e.

In addition, instrumentation and monitoring equipment have also contributed to the reliability of advanced water treatment facilities. Many things have changed in the water reclamation and reuse field in the contemporary period AD-present , but especially so during the last three decades. One of the most relevant changes is the recognition of the importance of reclaimed water in an integrated water resources management plan. Reclaimed water has become a new, additional, alternative, reliable water supply source right at the doorstep of metropolis for numerous uses in the diverse environment.

Moreover, successful stories on water reuse have expanded the frontier from agricultural and landscape irrigation and restricted urban uses to a variety of uses including potable reuse Crook, ; Mujeriego, ; Tchobanoglous et al. Historically, agricultural irrigation has been and continues to be the largest use of untreated wastewater. Early on, direct irrigation was used. Sewage farms were developed as the quantity of wastewater increased.

Subsequently, more intense forms of wastewater treatment were developed to deal with the ever-increasing quantities of wastewater to protect the environment. With the intensification of wastewater treatment processes, the quality of the effluent improved, which made reclaimed water suitable for a greater variety of agricultural applications. The development of more restrictive effluent discharge standards in the United States has led to further improvement in effluent quality, making the use of reclaimed water suitable for a variety of different applications.

The principal water reuse categories are summarized in Table 2. The reuse categories in Table 2 are also ranked in relative order of total usage, as practiced in the United States.

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Agricultural and landscape irrigation has expanded from earlier restricted uses to unrestricted irrigation of food crops eaten raw, when wastewater has been treated properly. With improved effluent water quality, there has been a global trend to diversify water reuse practices beyond agricultural and landscape irrigation, to recreational and environmental use, industrial reuse, groundwater recharge and potable reuse IPR and DPR, respectively Zhang et al.

Potable reuse is considered in the following section. Table 2.